H. D. Mahar1
, Durgesh Mahar2
, Divya Mahar3
, Manoj Kumar Jhariya4
, R. K. Jaiswal5
, A. M.
1Dept. of Botany, RG PG Autonomous College, Ambikapur, Sarguja, C.G. 497001 India.
2 Universe Research Center, Ledari, C.G., India (email@example.com)
3 Green City College Bangaluru, Karnataka, India
4Farm forestry Dept, UTD Surguja University, Ambikapur, C.G. India
5Geography Dept., RG PG A College, Ambikapur, Surguja, C.G. 497001 India.
6NSS, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur, C.G. India
An investigation was carried out to assess the impact of quality of soil on snake abundance at the snake land “Tapakara” in Jashpur district in C.G. India. It was done during summer season (June, 2016) in at atm. temp. 400C. Soil samples were collected from 07 villages of snake land, Soil testing of collected soil samples from snake land was done. The average value of soil elements is compared with the average value of soil elements of five villages of common land (out of snake land). The differences in average soil parameters, between snake land and common land were determined, and result reveals a cause of snake abundance. An unnatural behavior of snake Bangarus carcerulus, with respect to biting sleeping human for thermal sensing, increased biting case. For combating such problem, application of snake repellent plant and fumigation repellent and other precautions are discussed.
Bangarus carcerulus, Snake-world, Human- snake conflict, Poisonous snakes, Serpent ecosystem, Snake-repellents.
Geo-diversity affects to the biological diversity of any ecosystem (1, 2). The type of earth
e.g. ocean, volcano, desert, mountain, meteorite, hot water spring, forest, Iceland ect. are the
variety of the land (3, 4). Geo diversity affects to biodiversity of plant cultivation (5), as well as
animal population. E.g. ‘Snake Valley’’ is a north-south trending valley in the central Great
Basin, and Snake River is the largest tributary of the Columbia River. both Snake Valley and
Snake River are named for its serpentine shape i.e. geomorphology (6, 7) But, there are Snake
City and Snake Island on the earth named such, due to snake abundance. There is a Snake land in
Tapakara, District Jashpur, Surguja division, CG India. The objective of the paper is to compare
soil chemistry and soil microbiology to find out possible cause of snake abundance in Tapakara
snake land in India and find out simplest biological precaution by growing snake repellent plant
and doing snake- repellent fumigation.
Durban is known as snake city in South Africa. It coordinates: 29°53′S, 31°03′E and 29.883°S, 31.050°E. It is the third largest city, in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town. It is also the second most important manufacturing hub in South Africa after Johannesburg. Area of the City is 225.91 km2 (87.22 sq mi). Some of the world’s most dangerous snakes snake i.e. tiepins, vipers, rattlesnakes, kraits and mambas are found in this city and its surrounding area. Siouxsie Gillett and Simon Keys are professional snake-handler and Herpetologist, working a dangerous business of catching snakes. They have a passion to rescue snakes from human conflict and also to educate the population to change their attitudes and phobia’s towards these misunderstood animals. Their mission is to not only save and protect the snakes, but to also educate the city's inhabitants and help them understand and respect this hugely persecuted predator. to which they love (8, 9, 10)
“Queimada Grande” is Snake Island, about 90 miles from the city of São Paulo, a place so filled with venomous serpents that it's been called one of the "world's deadliest islands." Scientists estimate that up to 4, 000 snakes live on the 110-acre island, with some reports indicating to be one snake for every six square yards. The island is "More packed with snakes than the Spanish midfield is with talent, " It is located at 18 nautical miles (33 km) distance the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the island is approximately 430, 000 square metres (110 acres) in area. The island ranges in elevation from sea level to 206 metres (676 ft) above sea level. The island has a temperate climate that is similar to its neighbouring island Nimer.(11, 12, 13)
Queimada Grande is the only known home of the golden lance head (Bothrops insularis), one of the most venomous vipers in the world. Its venom is said to be three to five times stronger than that of any land snake, and it is capable of "melting human flesh”. It is the species of snake which gives the island its unofficial name. Snake Island (14, 15, 16)
A Snake land is explored in Tapakara, in Jashpur district, CG, India located between 22°20′ and 23°15′ North latitude and 83°45′ and 84°10′ East longitude and 500m altitude. It is 55 km long in north south direction It is surrounded by Datali hill and Satpuri hill in west, having altitude at peak up to 950m. There is Mahee hill in south having altitude at peak up to 650m. It’s origin of Jorad rivulet, which confluent to Kokiya river. There are Sonajori rivulet and Utiyal rivulet flowing as a confluent of Eeb river, they both originated from Sonajori hill in east, having altitude at peak up to 575m. About 40% of snake land is dense tropical deciduous Sal tree (Sorea robusta) dominated forest. Max. temp. reaches up to 450C in summer (May-June) and 300- 400mm precipitation in rainy season (July-August).
Population density is 130 human per square Km on snake land, and they are mostly tribal depending upon traditional farming and living in row clay home. Tapakara is deadly snake land and snake bite is 10 time more than other districts of India. An encircled portion in fig1 represents to snake land and fig 2 is the common crate excessively found in this area. (17, 18)
Snakes do not have especially keen senses of sight or hearing. They rely instead on special sense organs to provide them with information about their environment. Snakes have an eye on each side of the head, giving them a wide field of view, but they cannot focus them well and have sharp vision for only a short distance. Snakes lack outer ears and eardrums, but they do have inner ears and can hear a limited range of sounds carried in the air. Certain bones in a snake's head respond to sound waves and transmit them to the inner ear. (19)
A snake's tongue has few taste buds. It is used with an organ of smell called the Jacobson's organ, which, along with the nostrils, provides snakes with a keen sense of smell. The Jacobson's organ consists of two hollow sacs in the roof of a snake's mouth, each of which has many nerve endings that are extremely sensitive to odours. A snake sticks out its tongue to pick up scent particles in the air or on the ground or some other surface. When the snake pulls its tongue back into the mouth, these particles enter the Jacobson's organ. The organ enables a snake to follow the scent trail of its prey. (20)
This is specific character that this snake (B. caeruleus) searches to deep slept human for the sake of body temperature in spite of normal behaviour of food physiology. When, normally after 3-4 hours a slept human takes a turn, this snake bites by afraid of human. Smallest toxic teeth and strongest venom at already slept condition led to human silent death.
Table 1 represents soil testing of snake affected area. Chemical analysis is done in district
biotech. lab.(established for agriculture service). Soil samples of seven villages of Tapakara
snake land of Jashpur district are analyzed. Average values of the soil parameters are calculated
for further comparison with average parameters of soil samples of less snake area.
Table 2 represents soil testing of common area Manendragarh, Ambikapur, Balrampur, Tatapani, and Pratappur. These places are at the distance from centre of snake area respectively 200 Km. (in west direction), 87Km (in west direction), 120Km (in west-north direction), 200 Km (in north direction) 250Km (in west direction). Average values of the soil parameters are calculated for further comparison with an average parameters of soil samples of snake affected area.
Table3 represents the differences of soil parameters between snake affected area and nonsnake affected area. Both areas are comparative average chemical composition of samples. The result shows that pH, Electrical conductivity, Nitrogen, Potassium, Boron and colony forming unit of micro-organisms are positive in the difference. Carbon and Phosphorus are negative. While, difference of Zinc and Iron are negligible.
In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample. Viable is defined as the ability to multiply via binary fission under the controlled conditions. Counting with colony-forming units requires culturing the microbes and counts only viable cells, in contrast with microscopic examination which counts all cells, living or dead. The visual appearance of a colony in a cell culture requires significant growth, and when counting colonies it is uncertain if the colony arose from one cell or a group of cells. Expressing results as colony-forming units reflects this uncertainty. Snake effected area has high CFU of micro-organisms as it is represented in table 3.
On 15-09 2016, top ten dangerous snakes in India, Animal Planet-TV Chanel IST 05.0-06.0 pm top ten dangerous snakes in India, was shown. Last tenth number of poisonous snake is shy full gentle but high poisonous Sea crate. but first most dangerous is attacking and run behind to bite i.e. Russell Viper snake, while second most dangerous snake is this crate. It is so hazardous to tribe having, land-bed and nocturnal Crate snake has habit to search sleeping human to touch in length for sake of thermal sense, but, whenever sleeping human takes a turn, it got afraid and bites. The top ten venomous snakes are: 10. Sea crate (Tidal snake with flat tail), 09. Andaman pit viper, 08. Bamboo pit Viper, 07. Malabar pit viper, 06. Harp nosed viper, 05. King Cobra 04 Spectacle Cobra, 03 Viper snake, 02. Crate, 01.Russell viper (named after Herpetologist, Dr. Patric Russell) .
Fig3 and fig, 4 represent side and ventral view of sense organs respectively. The sense organs of snakes are uniquely different than those of mammals and other animals. Unlike mammals, which mainly rely on their sight and hearing, snakes rely primarily on their senses of smell and touch. They do not have moveable eyelids, but transparent caps called "brille" as protective eye coverings. Because of this, their eye movement is fairly limited. They also do not have an external ear, middle ear, or tympanic membrane (eardrum). Instead, they use a small ossicle (ear bone), called the "Columella, " to detect vibrations of sound waves conducted through the ground. They are able to pick up some sound waves conducted through the air, but only at very low frequencies.(19)
Basil is good snake repellent plant the leaves may taste somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, often sweet smell. There are many varieties of Ocimum basilicum, as well as several related species or species hybrids also called basil. (22, 23, 24, 25) Fig 5 and fig 6 represent Basil plant, it grows between 30–130 cm (12–51 in) tall, with opposite, light green, silky leaves3–11 cm (1.2–4.3 in) long and 1–6 cm (0.39–2.36 in) broad. The flowers are small, white in colour and arranged in a terminal spike. Unusual among Lamiaceae, the four stamens and the pistil are not pushed under the upper lip of the corolla, but lie over the inferior lip. After entomo-phillous pollination, the corolla falls off and four round achenes develop inside the bilabiate calyx.
Authors are thankful to reviewer for many corrections and suggestion of comparison with previous works result. Authors followed all corrections and searched local literature, journals and wave search. But since it is pioneer scientific study on snake land of Tapakara India, any scientific article is not available for comparison. Although snake related study on geo diversity is introduced. Authors are thankful to follow all point of review to be it as such a paper. Authors are also thankful to all teachers, friends, students, technicians, villager-snake holder and all, whoever helped me direct or indirect for this study.