Parthenium Problem




Research Project



A study on spread of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and it’s biological control in Surguja district


1. Introduction :

Parthenium hysterophorus L. is a genus in the family Asteraceae (Compositae ), native to tropical Americas, Parthenium hysterophorus, is an aggressive weed invading all disturbed land, including farms, pastures, and roadsides. Contact with this plant causes dermatitis and respiratory malfunction in humans, dermatitis in cattle and domestic animals, due to the presence of toxin Parthenium hysterophorus,

The species Parthenium hysterophorus, also known as congress weed or congress grass, has become a common weed in India, Australia and parts of Africa. In some areas, outbreaks have been of almost epidemic proportions, impacting crop production, livestock and human health. Its also called Congress weed in India .

Parthenium is a hazardous weed that harms human beings, kills livestock and chokes crops has invaded India .Congress weed, scientifically known as Parthenium hysterophorus, has been seen rapidly multiplying in several spots especially along the highway across Asia and American continent Parthenium hysterophorus has also been found to be resistant to glyphosate, the strong and popular systemic herbicide prohibiting its control.

Despite looking beautiful and smelling sweet, congress weed is among the world’s 10 most dangerous weeds. On contact with the human body, it causes a burning effect that can peel off the skin. Human beings who inhale pollen from the flowers can get an asthma-like illness or persistent flu-like symptoms.

The presence of Parthenium hysterophorus in cropped lands results in yield reduction up to 40 per cent. The pollen grains inhibit fruit set in tomato, brinjal, beans, etc. It is also responsible for bitter milk disease in livestock fed on grass mixed with Parthenium hysterophorus, Cattle that eat it produce foul-smelling milk or even die.

Parthenium hysterophorus weed can reduce maize yield by 40-60%. It can also reduce the amount of pasture in a grazing area . The congress weed is thought to have been introduced into India from Mexico . It accidentally got to India through relief grain imported from Mexico during the great famine that hit the Horn of India in the mid 1980s. It is dispersed mainly by long distance trucks, rivers, water streams and storm water (floods) and wind .

Parthenium hysterophorus is a fast maturing plant with a deep tap roof that can grow to a height of 1.5 to 2 meter having branched leaves covered with fine hairs. It grows a large number of small white flowers and seeds of light weight that are easily dispersed to distant places causing allergy in human beings. Each plant can produce up to 10,000 seeds. It has the capacity to re-grow from the cut or broken parts. It has no natural enemies such as insects and diseases because of which it spreads rapidly in India .

This weed can grow to the height of an adult and produce tens of thousands of seeds in one to two months. The seeds germinate easily but if the ground is not moist, it can remain viable (able to germinate) for up to 20 years. The situation may not be as simple as a botanist may predict . it’s higher natality rate headed to decline in agricultural productivity, food insecurity and poverty is set in as a result. Covering to the grassland ,It reduces the grazing area for the wild and domestic animal .and an ecological crisis may be due to the disturbance of the food chain .

The weed has since grown into uncontrollable proportions invading million of hectares of uncultivated wastelands, roadsides, railway tracks, etc. The fast growing weed is a nuisance in public parks, residential colonies and orchards. Not only that, it causes health hazards such as skin allergy, hay fever and asthma in human beings and is toxic to livestock. It squeezes grasslands and pastures, reducing the fodder supply. Scientists describe it as a "poisonous, allergic and aggressive weed posing a serious threat to human beings and livestock."



Since Parthenium hysterophorus produce large numbers of seeds which are transported by water, on vehicles and equipment, or in soil or mud adhering to vehicles, equipment and animals. Hence its spread is associated with roadways, stockyards, or movement of animals generally. New outbreaks in clean areas have been linked with movement of earthmoving and harvesting machinery, and transport of stock, fodder and grain from Parthenium hysterophorus infested areas.

Parthenium hysterophorus weed is an invasive annual of open land and pastures. It is unpalatable to stock, and on suitable soils in the summer rainfall tropics and sub-tropics, will quickly dominate both native and planted pastures particularly where these are overgrazed. Once dominant, Parthenium hysterophorus weed continues to persist as pure stands unless managed. Plants are capable of flowering when one month old and will remain in flower for 6-8 months when conditions are suitable.

Seeds remain viable on the soil surface for up to two years, or longer if there is no rain to stimulate germination. Buried seed may become dormant and remain viable for much longer periods .In India , Parthenium hysterophorus weed quickly invades disturbed soils such as overgrazed pastures and newly cleared or eroded lands, where it remains dominant unless the appropriate management techniques are applied. Management requires de-stocking to allow grass growth, followed by the reduction of stocking rates by about 40% to prevent re-invasion.



2.Review of literature
(i)International

Chippendale, J.F. and Panetta, F.D. (1994)studied the cost of Parthenium hysterophorus, weed to the Queensland cattle industry .He stated that Parthenium hysterophorus weed commonly dominates cultivated and other disturbed areas, in addition to flood-prone pastures. The presence of Parthenium hysterophorus in cropped lands can almost double cultivation costs and restrict the sale and movement of contaminated produce. In 1990 – 1991, a mail survey of beef producers was conducted in the most heavily infested region in central Queensland. Annual losses caused by this weed were found to be in the vicinity of $16.5m. Losses comprised opportunity costs (e.g. reduced stock numbers and live weight gains), as well as additional production and control costs. Increased expenditure on research into Parthenium hysterophorus, control (especially biological control, for which research expenditure was approximately $350 000 during 1990 – 1991) is thus warranted. (1)

Navie, S.C., McFadyen, R.E., Panetta, F.D., Adkins, S.W., 1996. introduced biotypes of Parthenium Hysterophorus .Two biotypes of Parthenium hysterophorus L. have established in Australia as a result of two separate introductions from the USA. The first introduction occurred in south-east Queensland and the second in central Queensland. Nine plants from each of the biotypes were grown under a day/night temperature regime of 23/13°C and 14.5 hour photoperiod in a plant growth cabinet for a period of five months. (2)

Adkins, S.W., Navie S.C., McFadyen R.E, 1996, studied the harmful effect and control of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium Hysterophorus L.)in southern Asia , and found that It causes direct losses to the grazing industry (about $A 14-18 million per annum) and is a human health hazard, causing allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. It has had an on-going campaign to reduce the spread and impact of this public nuisance. However, the weed has never-the-less continued to increase and spread. Chemical control is possible but is too expensive to control all infestations over such large areas. Biological control is feasible and the search for natural control agents is on-going. The Centre for Tropical Pest Management (CTPM) seeks to develop and implement cost-effective, environmentally friendly methods of control for Parthenium hysterophorus weed. This is achieved through collaborative research and technology exchange and concerns the topics of biology and ecology and biocontrol. An additional component is looking at ways of transferring the knowledge generated into the agricultural communies (3)

Adane Kebede Gebeyehu (2008) studied The distributions of Parthenium weed and explained that The weed is widely distributed in north-eastern parts of the Woreda. Results also showed that from all the sample species Parthenium hysterophorus was found to be the most abundant in road sides (49.1%). Field survey results showed that all the interviewed farmers were aware of P. hysterophorus, its ways of introduction into their locality, the agents facilitating its dissemination and places where Parthenium hysterophorus is densely populated. Farmers are generally aware of the impacts of Parthenium hysterophorus. The impacts are on crop production (44%), livestock (30.6%), on human health (18.8%) and has no any benefits attached to environment. This study revealed that P. hysterophorus has become a major pest plant of the wasteland, road sides, wet lands, vacant sites and crop fields and it has the potential to spread all over the Woreda. Hence it has a significant effect on the economic development of the study area. Integration of different control methods are therefore needed to prevent and control the danger of Parthenium hysterophorus.(4)

Mc Fadyen, R.E. (1995).studied Parthenium weed it’s effects on human health in Queensland.. Allergic reactions to the pollen and plant dust of the Parthenium weed are causing major health problems , which can be expected to increase, especially as the pasture weed is rapidly spreading south. This paper reviews published information on health aspects of this weed and calls attention to its spread into areas with much greater population. (5)

McFadyen, R.E. ; McClay, A.S., Palmer,W.A., Bennett, F.D., Pullen, K.R. (1995)devoted their study to the biological control against Parthenium hysterophorus weed in Australia.. He concluded that The moth Epiblema strenuana, is exerting significant control on the weed. The moth larvae form galls in the Parthenium stems and shoots; damage by several larvae stunts plants and reduces seed production. Unfortunately, the erratic climate interferes with the control: long dry periods reduce the moth population to very low levels so that when the Parthenium hysterophorus germinates after rain there is inadequate control. (6-7)

(ii) Indian
Raghunandan Prasad Sharma described Parthenium hysterophorus as a harmful weed for agricultural sector, in his study on the management of weeds of dry seeded rice fields of western Chhattisgarh. Parthenium hysterophorus ,along with many weeds like Casia tora, Sida acuta , Xanthocarpum strumarium , and Hyptis ovulence cover the agricultural fields and reduce it’s area . (8)

Dhileepan, K., Madigan, B., Vitelli, M., McFadyen, R.E., Webster, K. & Trevino, M. 1996.presented a paper in . 11th Aust. Weeds Conf. Victoria, Frankston describing a new initiative in the biological control of Parthenium .The stem-boring weevil Listronotus setosipennis, and the leaf-mining moth Bucculatrix parthenica are the species that are successfully established in most of the Parthenium infested areas of Queensland, while the leaf-feeding beetle Zygograrama bicolorata and the seed-feeding weevil, Smicronyx lutulentus appear to be established only in the central Queensland region.(9) A biological control program has been undertaken in India. The rust Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola and it’s combined impact is currently being evaluated in a 3-year project (Dhileepan et al. 1996). Preliminary results indicate that the impact is significant in wetter years and zones, reducing the weed’s competitiveness and assisting management in grazing properties. Control is however far from adequate and Parthenium hysterophorus, weed is still one of the major weeds of the of India (10)

Lakshmi Chembolli and C. Srinivas studied Parthenium hysterophorus L. (congress grass, congress weed, carrot weed, wild feverfew, the "Scourge of India") is an exotic weed that was accidentally introduced in India in 1956 through imported food grains. It has become a common weed causing dermatitis of epidemic proportions. The epithet "congress weed" refers to the US congress (who allocated the shipment for Pune, India). In Pune, it found an ecological niche without natural enemies and spread rapidly along the canal banks, roads and railway tracks to become a major field weed. Both rural and urban areas have been invaded by this weed. It is the leading cause of plant induced air-borne contact dermatitis in India and has achieved major weed status in India and Australia within the past few decades. The weed can affect human health, animal husbandry, crop production and biodiversity.(11)

V. Parasar et .al. described Parthenium hysterophorus causing contact dermatitis in livestock and is reported to be poisonous to sheep. Humans are also affected by this weed with respiratory malfunction and dermatitis. Parthenium hysterophorus is also reported as promising remedy against hepatic amoebiasis17, neuralgia and certain types of rheumatism Main toxin responsible for the effect is Parthenin .They used Parthenin in synthesizing silver nanoparticles, from Parthenium hysterophorus leaf extract suggesting a good antimicrobial agents.(12)



3. Objectives

The problem is that people are not looking at it as an issue. But if we remain reluctant it will become a bigger problem.

Aim of this study is to biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus in Surguja district and to see how we can handle the weed in the no man’s land in India .

This study is planning to deal with the weed using uprooting it and apply some bugs to eat the weed also an antagonistic effects of some other herbs would be applied for the control of Parthenium hysterophorus .also the pathogens for Parthenium hysterophorus would be studied for it’s eradication .

In the meantime, this study is going to keep monitoring and creating awareness about the dangers of this weed.



4. Methodology
1. Taxonomy of Parthenium hysterophorus, in the laboratory of the research center would be introduced .

2 Spread of Parthenium hysterophorus would be studied with the following methods:
  1. (i) Density, abundance , frequency, basal area , biomass production natality and mortality , ecological competition of Parthenium hysterophorus would be studied in protected and open grassland in the view of it’s spread.
  2. (ii) Average number of branches per plant , average number of capitula per branch , average number of fertile florets per capitulum ,number of stamen and pollen grains per floret would be counted .
  3. ) Size and weight of pollen grains, mode and rate of pollination , mode and rate of seed dispersal , rate of germination of sypsella seeds ,survival rate facing inter specific and intra-specific competitions would be studied in protected and open grassland in the view of spread of Parthenium hysterophorus.

3. Biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus : The possibilities and popularization of application biological control methods would be studied i.e. :

  1. Possibilities of antagonistic effect of Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea on Parthenium hysterophorus would be studied with the following methods:

    (a) Selection of areas : Such areas in Surguja forest i.e. protected and Open grass land would be selected , where density , abundance and frequency of Parthenium hysterophorus is higher and Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea are absent or minimum.

    (b) The seeds of Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea would be collected and shown in the selected area at the time of seed dispersal of Parthenium hysterophorus so that the seeds of Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea might be germinated and grown with Parthenium hysterophorus. The comperative study of germinaton and growth of Parthenium hysterophorus mixed with Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea and without them would be studied .

    (c) Same process would be followed for Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea separately in selected areas for study of antagonistic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus separately.

    (d) The seeds of Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea would be spread over the already germinated Parthenium hysterophorus and germination rate of Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea Would be comperative studied with the mixed showing . Also the growth and sevival rate of Parthenium hysterophorus Would be comperative studied with the only population of Parthenium hysterophorus and with mixed showings with all three Prelacra capitata , Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea and with any one of these

    (e) Observations of an antagonistic effect of Prelacra capitata, Hyptis ovulence and Casia sericea on Parthenium hysterophorus would be tabulated and and results would be studied.
  2. (ii) Other possible method of biological controle like application of insects and pest eating to Parthenium hysterophorus would be studied.
  3. (iii) An application of pathogen on Parthenium hysterophorus would be studied and Study of socio-economic and ecological impacts i.e. allergic effect to human, crop loss , grass land covering aspects along with the possibilities and popularization application of biological control for eradication of Parthenium weed would be discussed


5. Expected outcome

This study would bring an idea to to deal with Parthenium Hysterophorus , the congress weed using biological control methods i.e. uprooting , antagonistic effect of other herbs , application bugs to kill this weed and pathogen on Parthenium Hysterophorus should control it .



6. Significance of the work

Since it has a strong root which may bear branches ,so that the chemical herbicides could not control it. Biological control of Parthenium Hysterophorus would result a Parthenium free Surguja and the allergic and respiratory diseases causing by Parthenium Hysterophorus would be controlled with the control of Parthenium Hysterophorus. So that this topic has taken for research study .



References

  1. Chippendale, J.F. and Panetta, F.D. 1994. The cost of Parthenium weed to the Queensland cattle industry. Plant Protection Quarterly 9: 73-76.
  2. Navie, S.C., McFadyen, R.E., Panetta, F.D., Adkins, S.W., 1996. A Comparison of the Growth and Phenology of two Introduced Biotypes of Parthenium Hysterophorus pp. 313-16 in Proc. 11th Aust. Weeds Conf., R.C.H.Shepherd (ed.) Weed Sci. Soc. Victoria, Frankston.
  3. Adkins, S.W., Navie S.C., McFadyen R.E, 1996, studied the control of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium Hysterophorus L.): A Centre for Tropical Pest Management Team Effort pp.573-578 in Proc. 11th Aust. Weeds Conf., R.C.H.Shepherd (ed.) Weed Sci. Soc. Victoria, Frankston.
  4. The distributions of Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. Asteraceae) and some of its economic and ecological impacts
  5. McFadyen, R.E. 1995. Parthenium weed & human health in Queensland. Australian Family Physician 24: 1455-58.
  6. McFadyen, R.E. Cruttwell 1992. Biological control against Parthenium weed in Australia. Crop Protection, 11: 400-407.
  7. McClay, A.S., Palmer,W.A., Bennett, F.D., Pullen, K.R. 1995. Phytophagous arthropods associated with Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in North America. Environ. Entomol. 24:796-809
  8. Raghunandan Prasad Sharma “Management of weeds of dry seeded rice fields of western Chhattisgarh.” Ph. D. Thesis , Guru ghasidas University Bilaspur C.G. India, 2009: pp 108-110.
  9. Dhileepan, K., Madigan, B., Vitelli, M., McFadyen, R.E., Webster, K. & Trevino, M. 1996. A new initiative in the biological control of Parthenium. pp. 309-12 in Proc. 11th Aust. Weeds Conf., R.C.H.Shepherd (ed.) Weed Sci. Soc. Victoria, Frankston.
  10. Dhileepan, K., Madigan, B., Vitelli, M., . 1996. “A new initiative in the biological control of parthenium.” in Proc. 11th Aust. Weeds Conf., R.C.H.Shepherd (ed.) Weed Sci. Soc. Victoria, Frankston. pp. 309-12
  11. L akshmi Chembolli and C. Srinivas, 2007 “Parthenium: A wide angle view. Parthenium hysterophorus L.”Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 107: 57-60.
  12. Vyom Parasar, Rashmi Parasar , Bechan Sharma,Avinas C. Pandey “Parthenium leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticals : A novel approach toward weed utilization”Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures Vol. 4, No.1, March 2009, p. 45 - 50
  13. Navie, S.C., Panetta, F.D., McFadyen, R.E., & Adkins, S.W. Longevity of buried and surface-lying seeds of Parthenium weed. In Press.
  14. Arsons, W.T. & Cuthbertson, E.G. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne. 692 pp.
  15. Stuessy, T.F. 1977. Heliantheae, a Systematic Review. In "The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae". Vol. II. ed. V.H. Heywood, J.B. Harbone & B.L. Turner, Acad. Press, London.
  16. Towers, G.H.N. and Subba Rao, P.V. 1992. Impact of the pan-tropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. on human affairs. In: Proc.1st Int. Weed Control Congr. Melbourne.(Ed. R.G. Richardson) p.134-138, Melbourne, Australis.
  17. Tudor,G.D., Ford, A.L., Armstrong, T.R. and Bromage, E.K. 1982. Taints in meat from sheep grazing Parthenium weed. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Husb.,22: 43
  18. Anon. 1997 Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus) Pestfact PP2. Qld Gov., Brisbane.
  19. Holman, D.J & Dale, I.J. 1981. Parthenium weed threatens Bowen Shire. Qld Ag. J., 107: 57-60.
  20. Navie, S.C., Panetta, F.D., McFadyen, R.E., & Adkins, S.W. Longevity of buried and surface-lying seeds of Parthenium weed. In Press.
  21. Parsons, W.T. & Cuthbertson, E.G. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne. 692 pp.
  22. Stuessy, T.F. 1977. Heliantheae, a Systematic Review. In "The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae". Vol. II. ed. V.H. Heywood, J.B. Harbone & B.L. Turner, Acad. Press, London.
  23. Towers, G.H.N. and Subba Rao, P.V. 1992. Impact of the pan- tropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. on human affairs. In: Proc.1st Int. Weed Control Congr. Melbourne.(Ed. R.G. Richardson) p.134-138, Melbourne, Australia.
  24. Tudor,G.D., Ford, A.L., Armstrong, T.R. and Bromage, E.K. 1982. Taints in meat from sheep grazing Parthenium weed. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Husb.,22: 43-46.
  25. Chippendale, J.F. and Panetta, F.D. 1994. The cost of Parthenium weed to the Queensland cattle industry. Plant Protection Quarterly 9: 73-76.
  26. Ray, Dennis T.; Terry A. Coffelt and David A. Dierig (2004). "Breeding Guayule for commercial production". Industrial Crops and Products 22 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.06.005.
  27. Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L., Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2


Parthenium Problem certificate

certificate certificate