H D Mahar, Divya Mahar@ Durgesh Mahar# and RamBai Mahar#
Dept. of Forestry , UTD, Surguja University Ambikapur CG 497001, India.
@ Dept. of Microbiology. Green city College Bangalore Karnataka India
# Dept. of Biotech., Universe Research Center, Ledari, SJKD, Korea ,CG, India.
‘Tintina stone’ is situated at 13 Km away from Botany Dept. at Ambikapur, at Darima village beside temporary air base of Ambikapur CG India. It coordinates 22059’52.27’’ N latitude, 83010’56.74’’ E on 535 m altitude. The The study was done in winter season (Dec.2014) an at atm. temp. 150C. Physical measurement was done and morphology of Tintina stone’ was observed. The cup like pits present on it represents an analog with meteorites of mars. The tuning property of Tintina stone’ like bell metal was recorded. Modeling and simulation has been set up to be an analog a Mars Meteorite is based on morphology and physical properties of ‘Tintina stone’
stone, Tintina stone, Meteorite analog stones, Meteorites of mars, singing stone
Geo diversity is variety of earth like Ocean Lake Volcano, Mountain ,Forest , Grass land, Agricultural land etc. some of geo diversity are studied and Mars meteorite fallen to be found in earth is also recommended to consider as a geodiversity (1-3). Deepa Gopal studied ‘The Musical stones of Stonehenge” .in Africa’s Serengeti. and in the caves in the south of France. These stones are either artificially arranged in such a position that music sound is produced by hit , or they are naturally arranged in such position , that singing – whistling sound is produced when wind blows through it in specific direction . Their exact purpose is not known but it appears that our ancestors have gone to great length of time to collect these stones . The Stonehenge builders had hauled blue stones from hundreds of kilometers . These stones produce a “gong like sound instead of a ‘ dull clunk’ . This discovery increases the interest in a structure that has baffled archeologists for a long time (4,5)
The morphology of Tintina stone is found to have an analogy with mars meteorites. There are many meteorites found all over the world. Most of them have been found to be came from mars The discovery of tiny carbon rich balls and microtubules inside a Martian meteorite, has the possibility that the red planet was teeming with primitive life millions of year ago. The meteorites, which fell during Stone Age, contains microscopic burrows and spheres that resembles the marks micro-organisms leave when they eat through rocks on earth (3, 4). These features seem to have been pressed into the mars rock before it was hurled off the red planet by impact event. The researchers are not claming they have found evidence of ancient life on mars. In fact, in their papers, they do not use word ”life”. Their preferred term is “biotic activity”. But their findings revive the debate about the possibility of microbes in “mars” past through information gained from Martian meteorites that end up on earth. ( 6-8)
Objective of this paper is explore the natural tuning Tintina stone and compare its morphology with various meteorites of Mars and lay a basis of similarities , in origin and structure between Tintina stone and Mars meteorite. Secondly,to show the extra ordinary behavior i.e. the tuning property of Tintina stone and compare it with the singing stones and musical stones of Stonehenge.
The exploration of Tintina stone‘was conducted, approximately 13 Km. away from Ambikapur, the head quarter of Surguja division, on national highway N0 43 in east – south direction. It was done in winter season (Dec. 2014) at the environmental temp.150C. Started from Ambikapur on Raigarh road (NH-43), just after 01 Km. it is bifurcated. We followed right side on Damali road and after 10 Km., reached Darima village and again right turn moving 1.5 Km to reach Air Base. Beside Air Base at 0.5 km distance, Tintina stone was observed put on many other common stones under mango tree, (Mengifera indica di Anacardiaceae) .
Morphological parameters of Tintina stone‘are measured and physical specifications are noted. The tuning sound is produced by hitting Tintina stone‘with a piece of stone (shown in fig. 1, put in a cup like pit), sound was recorded and photographs were taken. Biodiversity on Tintina stone‘was observed with magnifying glass. Lower surface of Tintina stone‘and it’s near by common stones were scratched with a sharp knife and samples were collected along with the soil samples for microbial identification.
Mars meteorites were searched in wave sites and set an analogy with Tintina stone‘, on the basis of external morphology. Singing stone and musical stones are also searched in wave sites and compared with ‘Tin-Tin’ tuning sound of Tintina stone.
|Srl.||Structure and parameter||Observation / values|
|2||Shape||cylindrical to cubical|
|4||Size||Length 80 cm , Width 44cm , Perimeter 89cm|
|5||Minimum depth of the Pits||0.6cm|
|6||Maximum depth of the Pits||4.5cm|
|7||Number of pits on upper surface||29|
|8||Number of pits on lateral surface in east side||21|
|9||Number of pits on lateral surface in west side||16|
|10||Average diameter of pit||4.0cm.|
Table 1 represents external morphology and physical parameters of ’Tintina stone’. The morphology of the ’Tintina stone’ appears as a meteorites having deep pits at regular distance. A stone piece of about 2.0 cm diameter was used to hit the ’Tintina stone’ and tuning sound was produced result, was recorded. The tuning sound is just like the sound produced with any bell metal. It is due to deficiency of elements having less melting point (less than 2000C) e.g. M.P. of potassium (K) is 640C, Na = 980C , S= 1130C etc. These elements were burn out at the entrance in earth’s environment. The heavy metallic elements of high melting point remain left in the meteorite, e.g. Tin = 2320C, Zn= 4200C, Ag = 9620C, Cu = 10830C , Si = 14100C , and Fe = 15380C. There fore Tintina stone‘ behaves as a metal and produces tuning sound on hit. ‘Tintina stone’ is suggested to be composed of ignaceous rock and gray granite with fine particles of Silica. Here the motto of paper is to explore musical property and explain its physical causes as an analogy of mars meteorite on the basis of its morphological affinities
Table2 represents comparative physical properties between mars meteorite ALH84001, Tintina stone , it’s piece ( found at pit shown in fig1.) and a common red stone . Since red stone is earthly origin there fore it has yellowish –pinkish look and lees density. ‘Tintina stone” and it’s piece are of space origin , there fore they are white in texture ash like but have more density due to only heavy metals. The density of Tintina stone is equal to the piece of it’ pit, texture (looking) is also same. This piece may have come at cup formation time with cohesive force or molecular attraction force (9.10,11).
Consolmagno et al studied various type of density like bulk D, Specific D, and crude D along with porosity of meteorites and rocks and stones there fore porosity is took from paper by Consolmagno et al (28) .Density is calculated simple weight and volume method. Volume is measured by dipping in fulfilled jar and water flown is measured and applied D = M / V... Table3 represents that more similar to mars meteorite rather than a common red stone.
|Sr.||Properties||Mars meteorite Allan Hills 84001||Tintina stone||Piece of Tintina stone (white stone)||Common red stone|
|1||Weight||1040 gm||135500 gm||992gm||880 gm|
|2||Volume||3125 cm3||47733.50 cm3||350 cm3||362cm3|
|3||Density||3.2 gm/ cm3||2.83 gm/ cm3||2.83 gm/ cm3||2.43 gm/ cm3|
|4||Porosity||100%||100%||100%||75% to -90%|
stone “Tintina”- simulating double , stringing or tuning stone as well as morphology observed like mars meteorite.. Since Tintina stone is under Temple authority, so probe of density is not permutable. Although mathematically calculated value, with other comparative similarity and dissimilarity (analogy) is represented in table3.
Meteorites, that fell in the earth‘s atmosphere got burned and melted by air friction and oxidation. Most of C, P, S, Na, K etc. non metallic elements did burn out as oxides, since these have less melting point. The volume (space) of those burned out materials made cavities on the melting meteorite falling to earth. Those cavities appear cup like pits on the surface. Only heavy metallic elements are thus left behind in the meteorite.
The cup like many pits provide an air space to vibrate stone particles for producing sound by hitting. Although, ‘Tintina stone’ also has an air gap in bottom and looks like fallen from sky and put on other common stones. The sufficient air gap below ‘Tintina stone’ results in vibrating and production of musical tuning sound on hit “Tinn-tinn”, therefore, it is called ‘Tintina stone’.
Such morphology, having cup like pits, is also seen on Allan Hills 84001, most common meteorite found in Allan Hill, Antarctica on December 27, 1984 by a team of U. S. meteorite hunters. Allan Hills 84001 is thought to be from Mars; however it does not fit to any of previously discovered SNG groups. In Research, it’s mass was 1.93 Kg (4.3 lb.) It was headlines worldwide in 1996, when scientists observed carbonate globules and based on it , they announced that Allan Hills 84001 might contain evidence for microscopic fossils of Martian bacteria. (12,13)
There are abundance of mars meteorites in The National Museum of Natural History, a part of the Smithsonian Institution, About all of them have cup shaped surface (14), There fore , Mars is suggested to has liquid surface in ancient era. Since the photograph of flood’s water current in river shows morphology of cup like surface.
Fig 4 represents another meteorite ‘1611 x 1086- astro-ecology.com ’ It shows more similar cup like pits on it’s surface. Fig 5 represents the bursting out of material, to be a meteorite named as “(410 × 410 - solar6voyages.wikispaces.com )”.Fig .6 represents a meteorite as a solar voyager, and fig.7 represents mars meteorite from U K, (38 × 526 – By dailymail.co.uk) a meteorite on earth surface. Thus Fig 5, 6, and 7 represent process of meteorite’s formation. It is suggested that starting from mars, a meteorite moves in space passing through various environments having high and low temperature.
At the entrance of the earth atmosphere , about all non-metallic elements were burn out and that space leads to cup formation similar to the surface view of ‘Tintina stone’ i.e. represented in fig 1. On the basis of cup like pits found on ‘Tintina stone’ it is firmly considered to be a mars meteorite and it’s tuning property supports to this view.
There is also an another view that the wave like pits found on mars meteorite indicate that at any far ancient geological time before being meteorite, as a part of mars, it had a liquid flowing surface.(10) Liquid may be considered to be methane, ethane or water.(17) Author took photograph of water current of Hasdeo river, which is represented in fig 8 .Fig 9 represents high magnified view of fig 8, in which , water molecules are arranged in a row. The pit may be clearly observed on river current surface simulating the cup like pit of fig 7.
‘Tintina stone ‘ is quite similar to the musical stone of Stonehenge Fig. 10 represents musical stone , there are 08 tuning stones arranged in a specific sequence , that a sound of successive frequency is produced by sharp hit one by one, same as musical tune, in gamut for an octave (25). Musical stones are different from singing stone. Singing stones produce ‘whistle’ sound with wind blow, like bag pipe or bamboo pipe. But musical stones produce sound by sharp hit to it. ‘Tintina stone‘is single piece musical stone and also a mars meteorite analog.
Tintina stone is simulating a mars meteorite and in this exploration, an extraordinary behavior of ‘Tintina stone ‘i.e. it’s tuning property was recorded . ‘Tintina stone ‘ is quite different from singing stone of Stonehenge , where , about 21 stones are naturally found in such position , that it produces loud sound with blow of wind . This natural song is celebrated in Pagan culture of Druids people speaking Gaelic language. They worship natural forces and connect with them through rituals. They sing and dance around it in a circle.(14) The ‘Tintina stone ‘ is devoted to Hindu Deity ‘ Hanuman, similar to Greek God Typhoon.
On the basis of similarity in tuning property and outer structure of ‘Tintina stone ‘, an analogy with mars meteorite is considered. ‘Tintina stone ‘ and mars meteorites posses same morphology, i.e. cup like pits on surface, therefore ‘Tintina stone ‘ may be applied for astrobiology to research on mars meteorite
There is further scope of this study micro flora may be discussed in a view of ecological succession .It is found that the development of vegetation on ‘Tintina stone ‘ i.e. Xerarch succession is already started on side surface. But it is yet to start on upper surface of ‘Tintina stone ‘.While, common stones surrounding ‘Tintina stone ‘has been reached up to Moss stage. On ‘Tintina stone‘, the development of vegetation would be very slow due to deficiency of C, P, S, Na, K ect. Non metallic elements.