Bioelectricity



Bioelectricity and Taxonomic Table

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Summary to bioelectricity

The electrial properties of plant are known from ancient time ,by which environment lightning is much more attracted by high tree, which have much leaf area and herbage cover than that of tree less field ,Electrical properties of plamt is very insteresting study .On one hand plant are conductor for higher voltages and on the other hand plants products i.e.rubber is good insulator ,used in daily life

The study of electro -osmosis ,electrophorasis and measurement of electrial voltage from microscopic cell organelles i.e. Unit membrances to plant parts i.e. colioptyle ,stem ,leaves ,flowers and fruit results that plants have an electrial properties .Furthermore ,if we measure other parameters i.e.current ,resistance, inductance,capacitance ,q.factor etc.., a clear observation shows that plants have also electromagnetic properties along with electrical properties .This pattern of study is termed as ‘Bioelectricity “by I.S. Jenkinson and B.I.H scott (1961) in their paper, “Bioelectric oscillation of beam root: Further evidence for a feed back oscillator”(1.59) while “Phytoelectronics “term is accepted in author’s paper “ Phytoelectronics and it’s application in communication ”presented in the third internation conference (oct.1997), Victoria University of Technology Melbourne, Australia (1.69).

An international association for advancement of modelling and simulation in enterprises (AMSE) Lyon ,france, too published authors paper,(1.60) ” Measurement of Phytoelectronic parameters results a swift fluctuation in petiole and leaf of Ficus benghalensis Linn’ G.P.Chhalotra et.al.(India) termed “Phytoelectricity “suggesting that “The study of electrial properties of plant ,and its applications is called Phytoelectricity .(1.22) Althought Biedermann (1896) and sir J.C Bose (1907) termed “Electrophysiology”(1.8&1.11)

Ions and electrons have an electrical charge .It produces a potential for production or absorption of opposite ions and protons by electrostatic forces to be neutral.This electrostatic force creates the capacitance ,electric polarization and dielectric properties in plants.

Electrical charge also produces potential for a flow of charges to another cells ,where it is absent or less ,or toward apposite charges. This flow of electrical charge is “Bioelectric current”.





Electrical Properties of Plants

The electrical properties of plants are known from ancient time, by which environmental lightning is much more attracted by high trees, which have much leafarea and herbage cover than that of tree less field. Electrical propertiy of plant is very interesting study. On one hand plants are conductor for higher voltages, such as for lightning and semiconductor for domestic voltages and on the other hand plants products i.e. rubber is good insulator, used in daily life.

The study of electro-osmosis, electrophorasis and measurement of electrical voltage from microscopic cell organelles i.e. unit membranes to plants parts i.e. colioptyle, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits results that plants have an electrical properties. Furthermore, if we measure other parameters i.e. current, resistance, inductance, capacitance, q. factor etc. A clear observation shows that plants have also electromagnetic properties along with electrical properties. This pattern of study is termed as “Bioelectricity” by I.S. Jenkinson and B.I.H. Scott (1961) in their paper, “Bioelectric oscillation of bean root: further evidence for a feed back oscillator” (1.59) while “Phytoelectronics” term is accepted in author’s paper “Phytoelectronics and it’s application in communication” presented in the third international conference (Oct. 1997), Victoria University of Technology Melbourne, Australia (1.69).

An international association for advancement of modelling and simulation in enterprises (AMSE) Lyon, France, too published authors paper, (1.60) “Measurement of phytoelectronic parameters results a swift fluctuation in petiole and leaf of Ficus benghalensis Linn.” G.P. Chhalotra et. al. (India) termed “Phytoelectricity” suggesting that “The study of electrical properties of plants, and its applications is called phytoelectricity.” (1.22). Although Biedermann (1896) and Sir J.C.Bose (1907) termed “Electrophysiology” (1.8 & 1.11)

Ions and electrons have an electrical charge. It produces a potential for production or absorption of opposite ions and protons by electrostatic forces to be neutral. This electrostatic force creates the capacitance, electric polarization and dielectric properties in plants.

Electrical charge also produces potential for a flow of charges to another cells, where it is absent or less, or toward opposite charges. This flow of electrical charge is “Bioelectric current” called phytoelectric current. This current creates certain electrical properties in plant i.e. conductivity, resistivity and electric potential or electromotive force. The conductivity of electric current is due to electrical property of protoplast being of colloidal nature and resistivity is due to cell walls made up of complex carbohydrates

Dutch scientist Christian Huyghen (1678) stated that the photons (light particles) move in a wave-form, (1.36) which are absorbed by chlorophyllous cells for photosynthesis. These light waves have very less wave lengths (l = 4 × 10–7 m to 7.8 × 10–7 meter) and higher frequencies (7.5 × 1016 Hz to 4 × 1014 Hz). From this theory one may further think that when plants absorb the waves having less wave length and higher frequency, plants should also absorb those electromagnetic waves having higher wave lengths in mm to meter and less frequencies, i.e. 3 × 1011 Hz to 3 × 108 Hz. Further investigations in this direction results that certainly plants absorb the electromagnetic higher wave length and inductance, electro magnetic polarization, Hallcoefficient like properties are studied. S.P. Kosta has observed that electromagnetic waves are absorbed by plants.

a. The work of S.P. Kosta (1977)

The work of S.P. Kosta brought a new technology for phytoelectricians regarding the telecommunication uses of plants as an antenna and aerials, He experimented with some plants e.g. papaya (Carica papaya), coconut (Cocos nucifera) mango (Mengifera indica), neem (Azzardirecta indica), Eucalyptus, gulmohar (Delonix regia) and palms (Phoenix dectylifolium). He found that plants are useful as an antenna, aerials and also wireless telephone.(1.99)


b. Works of G.P. Chhalotra

G. P. Chhalotra (1989) studied digital computer simulation of chemical and electrical properties of Eucalyptus and ashok green leaves with RLC parameters measurements. He calculated the resistance, inductance and capacitance of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus eugeniodes) and ashok (Saraca indica) leaves using their configurations in the x, y and z axes. The approximate measurement of these parameters were made using three-voltmeter method. A digital computer procedure was used to bring out their salient features. The leaves offer very high inductance and capacitance in the direction of thickness. The coupled inductances and capacitances matrices are developed for their material properties. The resistance in the z direction is minimum while the inductance and capacitance are maximum, This study brings out that leaves are semiconductors, dipolar and paramagnetic, most suitable for transducers, amplifiers and antennas. The leaves are compared with copper and aluminium equivalent foils to generate analogy and results were tabulated.(1.24)

G.P. Chhalotra et al (1990) devoted in study on the simulation of rectified properties of green leaves with CRO displays and random distribution of material indices. A study of green leaves was made by supplying AC voltage as input and output voltages at the second end. The output voltage seems to be DC voltage. The rectifying properties have been obtained with greater accuracy and actual CRO displays were photographed. Some leaves of high cellulose materials are good rectifiers. In the light of these properties, the material indices had been presented and density, dielectric constant, resistance and permeability have been discussed. The dielectric constant of all leaves as an average value is constant of the order of 30. Some species such as yellow Mengifera leaves, Eucalyptus, ashok leaves (Saraca indica), gudhal (Hibiscus rosa sinensis), yellow tesu (Butea monosperma), bargad (Ficus benghalensis), banana (Musa paradisiaca) etc. have been brought to the study. The ecological consideration would help to investigate the environmental behaviour of leaves and vegetation. He used the cathode ray oscillograph (CRO)displays to determine the non-linear characteristics of green leaves. Any impurity due to pollution was deducted the rectification properties of green leaves using CROdisplays was studied (1.25).

G. P. Chhalotra et al (1990) studied Hall-effect measurements and antenna characteristics simulation, used to determine materials in the green leaves. Five samples of leaves were taken to study material indices into the green leaves. Some largely available leaves were taken under this study and the random electrical measurements were made to predict a clue of materials (1.26).

G. P. Chhalotra et al (1992) studied pollution indices on green leaves and he stated that some leaves are very good pollution indicators. The leaves rich in minerals are suitable to detect type of pollution. The leaves rich in cellulose are affected at very high ppm of concentration of pollution. The resinous leaves are affected at greater concentration than cellulose leaves, oily and lignin leaves are rather strong to resist pollution effects. The capacitance and inductance measurements at a spot would indicate the pollution indices. The resistivity, permeability or permittivity may be resolved into components to indicate presence of pollution. The change of dielectric constant, resistivity or permeability would enable us to determine the pollution indices (1.27).

Chhalotra’s scholar- A. Vani (1986) had to study of material indices into green leaves by random electrical and physical measurements. She stated that the configuration of leaves carries different materials. The construction, size, shape, thickness, length and width may be exploited to predict materials into the leaves. The material indices are formulated for long and thick leaves. The chemical action in the presence of sun and electric current may be predicted by the measurement of electrical resistances at various points. The gradients of resistance, thickness, width and length are exploited to predict materials into green leaves. The random measurements are used to find mean and the variance to generalize the average values of measurements for large number of leaves and trees (1.101).

c. Plant physiological investigations by Sir J.C. Bose


Sir J.C. Bose invented certain apparatuses like magnetic crescograph, photosynthetic recorder, oscillating recorder, resonance recorder and diameteric contraction apparatus, cohrer, collimeter, torsion recorder, geo-perceptive electric probe apparatus, photographic autonomous-pulse recorder and plant movement recorder, which are very useful in understanding and demonstration of physiological process of the plant, e.g. plant response to the long waves electromagnetic radiations, response to the light intensity for angular movement of Desmodium gyranse leaflets, torsional*- response to geotropic movement, geo-electric responses of plants, staircase** l response to the subtonic specimens of Mimosa pudica to an electric shock, kunchangraph, (1.12) shoshungraph and morograph and various movements of plants e.g. heliotropic, apogeotropic, plagiotropic responses to seismonastic and nyctinastic thigmotropic, heliotropic and phototropic etc. movements and electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal and multiple responses (1.15).


Sir J.C.Bose along with Lillie belonged to the generation of electro physiologist, who attributed a supreme role to bio-electric potential and to its propagation as excitation current in controlling all biological processes including intregation, growth, tropic movements, cell-division etc and the study of the energetics of such processes which are based upon biochemical metabolism.


Sir J.C. Bose proved pulsatory movement in plants endodermal region by an electrical probe experimentation (fig-1.2). A heart beat like rythmic movement of electro-osmotic waves gave an oscillation (vibration) to indicator of galvanometer. He connected a crescograph (mfg. ´ 104 ), magnifing apparatus with lever, pulley, light beam, mirror and moving screen system (Fig. 1.3).




He showed cardiograph of plants in Royal Science Society, United Kingdom (10th May 1901) and proved plant “living.” This heart beat was stopped by dipping roots into bromide poison to show the death of plant (Fig.1.4 and 1.5). He further stated (1923) that by this pulsatory movement of endodermal region, a pumping force is applied for ascent of sap in xylem tissue and supposed to vital theory proposed by Godlewsky (1885). Phloem tissue, a site for translocation, also acts as a nervous system of plants, having K+ ionic reflex-action for sensation


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